Feb 2, 2008

Shiftwork Research: an extensive bibliography

Here's a long list of research references for those who want to really get into it.
Aschoff, J. (1978). Features of circadian rhythms relevant for the design of shift schedules. Ergonomics, 21, 739-754.
This article reviewed the properties of circadian rhythms under different conditions (e.g., free-running, phase shifts). The relevance of circadian rhythms for the design of shiftwork was briefly covered at the end of the review. Several difficulties with determining the optimal shift schedule were discussed.

Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1991). Routinization of job context and job content as related to employees' quality of working life: A study of Canadian nurses. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 379-386.
This study examined the differences between routine (i.e., permanent) versus non-routine shift schedules. A total of 1,148 nurses in the greater Montreal area completed questionnaires with prepaid return envelopes. Nurses with routine shifts reported higher levels of quality of work life over those working non-routine shifts.

Baba, V. V., & Jamal, M. (1992). How much do we really know about moonlighters? Public Personnel Management, 21, 65-73.
The authors reviewed the literature on moonlighting and compared the rate of moonlighting reported in government publications with rates found in scientific research. In addition, research on moonlighting was critically examined. Differences between moonlighters and nonmoonlighters were discussed in terms of personal, social, and organizationally-valued outcomes.

Baker, A., Roach, G., Ferguson, S., & Dawson, D. (2004). Shiftwork experience and the value of time. Ergonomics, 47, 307-317.
The aim of this study was to determine differences between preferred work hours between new shiftworkers, experienced shiftworkers, and nonshiftworkers. Respondents rated their preference for working each hour during the week. Nonshiftworkers preferred hours associated with societal norms, and new shiftworkers were less restrictive in their perception of work hours than experienced shiftworkers.

Baruch, Y., & Peiperl, M. (2003). An empirical assessment of Sonnenfeld's career systems typology. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14, 1267-1283.
The authors attempted to test Sonnenfeld’s career systems typology with companies in the United Kingdom that had 150 employees or more. Results indicated support for some of the typology. The authors noted several limitations (e.g., small samples size for some comparisons) of their study.

Baxter, D. H. (2002). Guidelines for TMC transportation management operations technician staff development (No. FHWA-OP-03-071). McLean, VA: Federal Highway Administration.
The statement of work specifically directed the project team to build off of the TMC Operator Requirements and Position Descriptions, Phase 1 initiative. The goal of the initiative was to develop a matrix that relates TMC operator knowledge, skill, and ability (KSA) requirements to TMC functions. The technical report detailed the work conducted for this initiative including a discussion of the functions of TMCs, KSA requirements for the TMC operator position, and tasks performed by TMC operators and how these functions, KSAs, and tasks were developed.

Bendak, S. (2003). 12-h workdays: Current knowledge and future directions. Work & Stress, 17, 321-336.
This article reviewed and examined contradictory findings on 12-hour workshifts. For example, results suggested that 12-hour shifts tend to cause more fatigue than 8-hour shifts, and this fatigue is associated with lower work efficiency and higher incidence of accidents and errors. However, workers tend to prefer 12-hour shifts because of some perceived benefits (e.g., compressed work week).

Blau, G., & Lunz, M. (1999). Testing the impact of shift schedules on organizational variables. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 933-942.
The objective of this article was to examine an occupation (i.e., medical technologists) outside of the traditional samples (i.e., nurses, blue collar manufacturing employees) of shiftwork studies. The results suggested that dayshift medical technologists experienced more task enrichment than evening, night, or rotating shift medical technologists. Contrary to previous findings, rotating shift employees did not experience lower work attitudes than fixed shift employees.

Bohle, P., & Tilley, A. J. (1998). Early experience of shiftwork: Influences on attitudes. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 71, 61-79.
This article examined nurses’ attitudes toward different shift designs and predictors of overall satisfaction with shiftwork. The results revealed that over time nurses dissatisfaction with shiftwork increased. In addition, greater work/non-work conflict and lower social support was associated with greater dissatisfaction with shiftwork.

Breaugh, J. A. (1983). The 12-hour work day: Differing employee reactions. Personnel Psychology, 36, 277-288.The author examined non-exempt employees’ reactions to using a compressed work schedule of 12-hour shifts for staffing a continuous process plant open 24/7. The results suggested that workers who had experience with a 12-hour shift reacted more positively than employees new to the scheduling system. In fact, those who had worked the 12-hour schedule previously found the compressed work week to be less fatiguing, saving on commuting time and cost, providing a more regular sleep pattern, and providing more usable time off. Employees reacted more favorably to the 12PM to 12AM shift than the 12AM to 12PM shift.

Carlson, K. D., & Connerley, M. L. (2003). The staffing cycles framework: Viewing staffing as a system of decision events. Journal of Management, 29, 51-78.
This article presented a theoretical model of staffing. The staffing cycles framework views staffing as a system of seven decision events (e.g., designing a position, accepting an offer) controlled by either the applicant/employee or the organization. This framework provides a model from which to consider and explain staffing from a management perspective.

Costa, G. (1996). The impact of shift and night work on health. Applied Ergonomics, 27, 9-16.
This review article covered the negative consequences of shiftwork, in particular, nightshifts. The consequences discussed range from circadian rhythm disturbances to deterioration of social relationships. The authors considered how the effects of shiftwork can vary by individual, working situation, and social conditions.

Costa, G. (2003). Factors influencing health of workers and tolerance to shift work. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 4, 263-288.
The author identified shiftwork as a risk factor for health and well-being. He discussed the intervening variables that may attenuate these risk factors, and attempted to clarify the interaction among employee characteristics, social conditions, and work situation. The author also asserted that not only does the interaction depend on the strength of each variable, but also when each variable exerts its effect.

Dekker, D. K., Tepas, D. I., & Colligan, M. J. (1996). The human factors aspects of shiftwork. In A. Bhattacharya & J. D. McGlothlin (Eds.), Occupational Ergonomics Theory and Applications (pp. 403-416). New York: Marcel Dekker.
This book chapter highlighted many of the human factors associated with shiftwork such as types of shift schedules, gender differences, and shiftworker adjustment. In addition, the chapter suggested variables to consider and to address when implementing or evaluating work schedules. The final section summarized the status of current shiftwork research and gaps in knowledge future research should address.

Dreher, G. F., & Kendall, D. W. (1995). Organizational Staffing. In G. Ferris, R., S. D. Rosen & D. T. Barnum (Eds.), Handbook of Human Resource Management. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
This handbook chapter provided a framework from which to consider staffing choices managers must make using sound management and business principles. The second half of the chapter reviewed how the Associated Group has managed their staffing system while adjusting to a competitive business market. This chapter focused on larger companies with needs such as downsizing, restructuring, and staffing completely new facilities in foreign countries.

Dunham, R. B. (1977). Shift work: A review and theoretical analysis. Academy of Management Review, 2, 624-634.
The author reviewed the research on worker reactions to shiftwork and how to identify worker problems associated with shiftwork. The author argued that many shift-related problems are caused by lack of a positive community-orientation toward shift schedules. Several suggestions were offered to managers before implementing a shift system such as assessing the “shift work climate.”

Dunham, R. B., & Pierce, J. L. (1986). Attitudes toward work schedules: Construct definition, instrument development, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 170-182.
This article reviewed several scheduling arrangements including staggered hours, flextime, and shiftwork schedules. The author developed and validated a set of scales to measure workers’ attitudes toward different scheduling arrangements. The author suggested that these scales may help practitioners assess the work schedule attitudes of prospective employees.

Dunham, R. B., Pierce, J. L., & Castañda, M. B. (1987). Alternative work schedules: Two field quasi-experiments. Personnel Psychology, 40, 215-242.
In two field studies, the authors reviewed employee reactions to a change from a 5/40 workweek to a 4/40 workweek, and from a 5/40 schedule to flextime. All three schedules evidenced different advantages and disadvantages. Most of the employees preferred flextime over the 5/40 work schedule.

Ernst, A. T., Jiang, H., Krishnamoorthy, M., & Sier, D. (2004). Staff scheduling and rostering: A review of applications, methods and models. European Journal of Operational Research, 153, 3-27.
This article provides a review of staff scheduling and rostering from an operations research perspective. Specific rostering problems in specific application areas were reviewed, as well as models and algorithms that have been reported as solutions. In addition, commonly used methods for solving rostering problems were discussed.

Folkard, S. (1992). Is there a "best compromise" shift system? Ergonomics, 35, 1453-1463.
This article criticized the views expressed by Wilkinson in an article titled “How fast should the nightshift rotate?” The author argued that Wilkinson overestimated the problems associated with rapidly rotating shifts and underestimated the problems associated with a permanent nightshift. The author concluded that the choice between a rapidly rotating system versus a permanent nightshift depends on the importance placed on safety and social problems.

Folkard, S., & Monk, T. H. (1979). Shiftwork and performance. Human Factors, 21, 483-492.
As the incidence of shiftwork has increased, the authors noted that the content of shiftwork has changed from perceptual-motor tasks to mentally demanding tasks. In the article, the authors attempted to address these trends by reviewing shiftwork research on task demands, different shift designs, and the role of individual differences. In addition, the authors proposed a descriptive model to explain shift performance as determined by the type of task performed, type of shift system implemented, and the characteristics of the person (e.g., circadian rhythms).

Folkard, S., & Monk, T. H. (Eds.). (1985). Hours of work: Temporal factors in work-scheduling. New York: John Wiley.
This edited book is part of the Psychology and Productivity at Work Series. Authors addressed how cost-effective staff schedules may be developed to ensure the productivity, satisfaction, and safety of employees. Chapters ranged in coverage from basic research on circadian rhythms to assessments of field conditions such as the changes in lighting conditions from dayshifts to nightshifts.

Folkard, S., Monk, T. H., & Lobban, M. C. (1979). Towards a predictive test of adjustment to shift work. Ergonomics, 22, 79-91.
The article assessed the validity of a new questionnaire designed to assess the degree to which an employees’ circadian rhythm adjusts to night work. Forty-eight permanent nigh nurses completed the new questionnaire. The authors concluded that the study provided preliminary evidence for accurately predicting the degree to which employee’s circadian rhythms adjusted to shiftwork and that the questionnaire assessed an individuals’ flexibility of sleeping habits and ability to overcome drowsiness.

Fox, M. L., Dwyer, D. J., & Ganster, D. C. (1993). Effects of stressful job demands and control on physiological and attitudinal outcomes in a hospital setting. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 289-318.
The authors supported the job demands—job control model of stress with a sample of 136 nurses. As predicted by the model, job demands were correlated with measures of blood pressure and cortisol levels. In general, the results have implications for the relationship between the role of personal control and occupational stress.

Frese, M., & Okonek, K. (1984). Reasons to leave shiftwork and psychological and psychosomatic complaints of former shiftworkers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 509-514.
The articled examined the differences between former shiftworkers who had left for heath reasons, for other reasons, or for both health reasons and other reasons. The sample consisted of 261 male, blue-collar workers in Germany. Results indicated that former shiftworkers who left for health reasons were less skilled, were unemployed less often, and were typically told to leave by a physician.

Frost, P. J., & Jamal, M. (1979). Shift work, attitudes, and reported behavior: Some associations between individual characteristics and hours of work and leisure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 66-70.
The study explored employee schedules, after work activities, and characteristics of the employees. Four hundred employees from six manufacturing companies representing either dayshift or “other shift” workers completed a structured questionnaire on work and nonwork attitudes and behaviors. Dayshift workers experienced more positive outcomes (e.g., better mental health, expectation of longer job tenure).

Gordon, R. L., Reiss, R. A., Haenel, H., Case, E. R., French, R. L., Mohaddes, A., et al. (1996). Traffic control systems handbook (No. FHWA-SA-95-032). Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration.
The statement of work directed the project team to build off of initiatives previously completed for the Federal Highway Administration that provide overviews on some of the key topics of the current initiative. This handbook provides an easy-to-use reference on transportation management systems. The handbook includes sections on the typical work tasks of transportation management employees and staffing requirements of transportation management centers.

Guthrie, J. P., Ash, R. A., & Bendapudi, V. (1995). Additional validity evidence for a measure of morningness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 186-190.
This study tested the morningness scale developed by Smith, Reilly, and Midkiff in an article titled “Evaluation of three circadian rhythm questionnaires with suggestions for an improved measure of morningness.” The sample included 454 college students. The morningness scale was compared to students’ sleep patterns, study behavior, class schedule choices, and class performance. Results suggested that the morningness scale was a valid predictor of sleep patterns, studying, and class scheduling and interacted with the time at which classes met and class performance.

Härmä, M. (1993). Individual differences in tolerance to shiftwork: A review. Ergonomics, 36, 101-109.
The article reviewed the characteristics of individuals and their tolerance to shiftwork. The importance of circadian rhythm adjustment to shiftwork was covered, and different coping mechanisms were considered. Circadian rhythm regulation and sleep were viewed as critical mechanisms that determine shiftwork tolerance.

Härmä, M. (1996). Ageing, physical fitness and shiftwork tolerance. Applied Ergonomics, 27, 25-29.
The article reviewed the effects of ageing and physical fitness on tolerance of shiftwork. The author recommended that work time arrangements account for older workers’ age by making night work voluntary after 40 years of age. Moderate physical exercise a few hours before sleep was also recommended.

Hennig, J., Kieferdorf, P., Moritz, C., Huwe, S., & Netter, P. (1998). Changes in cortisol secretion during shiftwork: Implications for tolerance to shiftwork? Ergonomics, 41, 610-621.
The objective of the study was to determine the amount of changes in cortisol secretion during shiftwork and whether there was an association with shiftwork. Saliva samples were taken from 24 night shiftworkers in a cardiac emergency unit for seven nights. There was a clear mean correlation between circadian function and time, but individual patterns of change were less evident.

Hockey, G. R. J. (1986). Changes in operator efficiency as a function of environmental stress, fatigue, and circadian rhythms. In K. R. Boff & L. Kaufman (Eds.), Handbook of perception and human performance (pp. 1-49). New York: John Wiley.
This handbook chapter reviews the effect of motivation, bodily arousal, emotion, and fatigue on human performance. The authors adopted arousal theory and information-processing models to examine different states (e.g., stress states) across a range of work situations and environments. The chapter included sections on changes in operator performance as a function of circadian rhythms and shift schedules.

Jamal, M. (1981). Shift work related to job attitudes, social participation and withdrawal behavior: A study of nurses and industrial workers. Personnel Psychology, 34, 535-547.
The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of shift schedules on mental health, job satisfaction, social participation, organizational commitment, anticipated turnover, absenteeism, and tardiness. The samples included 440 nurses in two hospitals and 383 rank-and-file workers in a manufacturing organization. Workers on fixed work schedules experience higher levels of mental health, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and social participation than workers on a rotating schedule. In addition, workers on fixed schedules reported lower levels of anticipated turnover, absenteeism, and tardiness than those on rotating shifts.

Jamal, M. (1986). Moonlighting: Personal, social, and organizational consequences. Human Relations, 39, 977-991.
The article compared individual (e.g., health problems), social (e.g., social support), and organizational outcomes (e.g., absenteeism, job satisfaction) of moonlighters versus nonmoonlighters. The samples included 283 blue collar workers at a manufacturing organization and 252 fire fighters. The results indicated that nonmoonlighters were not better off in terms of physical health, job stress, social support, absenteeism, anticipated turnover, and job performance.

Jamal, M., & Baba, V. V. (1992). Shiftwork and department-type related to job stress, work attitudes and behavioral intentions: A study of nurses. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 449-464.
The study investigated the relationships of shiftwork and type of department with employees’ level of job stress, type of stressor, work attitudes, and behavioral intentions. A total of 1,148 nurses from eight hospitals in Montreal completed a structured questionnaire. Results generally supported that nurses benefited from working in a fixed shift rather than a rotating shift. There was some support that nurses were better off working in a non-intensive care unit rather than an intensive care unit.

Jamal, M., Baba, V. V., & Riviére, R. (1998). Job stress and well-being of moonlighters: The perspective of deprivation or aspiration revisited. Stress Medicine, 14, 195-202.
The study examined the differences between moonlighters versus nonmoonlighters on job stress and well-being among college teachers in Canada. Well-being was assessed in terms of burnout, job satisfaction, job involvement, turnover intention, and job performance. The results demonstrated that nonmoonlighters were better off than moonlighters in terms of job satisfaction, job involvement, teaching hours, and number of students taught per semesters, however; nonmoonlighters reported higher levels of job stress, burnout, turnover intention, and lower course preparation per semester.

Jamal, M., & Crawford, R. L. (1981). Consequences of extended work hours: A comparison of moon lighters, overtimers, and modal employees. Human Resource Management, 20, 18-23.
The article attempted to provide initial evidence on the effects of overtime and moonlight work, and their implications for management decisions. The sample included 404 rank-and-file employees eligible for overtime pay from six companies in a western Canadian metropolitan area. Results suggested similar levels of well-being, mental health, job stability, and job performance for moonlighters, overtimers, and modal employees.

Jamal, M., & Jamal, S. M. (1982). Work and nonwork experiences of employees on fixed and rotating shifts: An empirical assessment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 20, 282-293.
This article examined the effects of shiftwork on leisure time, nonwork satisfaction, mental and physical health, and job performance. Samples included 383 rank-and-file employees at a manufacturing organization and 440 nurses. Results supported the use of a fixed shift time over the use of a rotating shift design.

Kelly, M. J. (1999). Preliminary human factors guidelines for traffic management centers (No. FHWA-JPO-99-042). McLean, VA: Federal Highway Administration.
The statement of work specifically directed the project team to use the Preliminary Human Factors Guidelines for Traffic Management Centers. This report offered human factors guidance for the development and operation of transportation management centers. The document specifically addressed the human factors of workload and shift scheduling of TMC employees.

Knauth, P. (1996). Designing better shift systems. Applied Ergonomics, 27, 39-44.
This article reviewed interventions studies on the change from weekly rotating shift systems to rapidly rotating shift systems. Based on physiological, psychological, and social criteria, five recommendations were offered. For example, the author recommended that night work should be reduced to the greatest extent possible.

Kogi, K. (1996). Improving shift workers' health and tolerance to shiftwork: Recent advances. Applied Ergonomics, 27, 5-8.
The article reported recent developments in research on health and tolerance to shiftwork. The author stated that shiftwork is viewed as a risk factor, and that multifaceted actions are necessary to improve shiftwork conditions. Furthermore, multifaceted actions should be based on participatory planning and implementation.

Koller, M. (1996). Occupational health services for shift and night workers. Applied Ergonomics, 27, 31-37.
The author recommended the implementation of preventive measures to reduce the expected health risks of implementing a shiftwork schedule rather than relying on rehabilitative mechanisms. Preventative measures, for example, include noting any sleep, digestive, metabolic, or cardiovascular troubles and offering medical counseling during the first few months. The author included several examples of occupational health services in operation.

Kostreva, M., McNelis, E., & Clemens, E. (2002). Using a circadian rhythms model to evaluate shift schedules. Ergonomics, 45, 739-763.
The study tested optimal scheduling strategies in a simulation study. Models compared circadian rhythms produced from a variety of shiftwork schedules to free-run rhythms. The authors found that the best shift schedule was a slow, forward rotating pattern with shifts rotating after a 2-week period and allowing for an average of 2 days off per week.

Kraft, W. H. (1998). Synthesis of highway practice 270: Transportation management center functions. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
The statement of work directed the project team to build off of initiatives previously completed for the Federal Highway Administration that provide overviews on some of the key topics of the current initiative. This document examined the functions, characteristics, design, and benefits of TMCs and reports the results from a survey of 190 transportation agencies, authorities, and organizations. The document specifically covers staffing and scheduling of TMC employees.

Kundi, M. (2003). Ergonomic criteria for the evaluation of shift schedules. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 4, 302-318.
The author argued that there is no one best shift schedule. Shift schedules were compared in terms of ergonomic considerations based on certain organizational, staff, and work-related features. The author proposed destabilization theory as a method for designing and evaluating working time arrangements.

Lac, G., & Chamoux, A. (2004). Biological and psychological responses to two rapid shiftwork schedules. Ergonomics, 47, 1339-1349.
This field study assessed biological and psychological variables of shiftworkers and nonshiftworkers on different rotation cycles. Shiftworkers reported higher levels of stress, higher frequencies of health problems, and lower levels of satisfaction at work than nonshiftworkers. Biological differences included changes in cortisol circadian profiles for shiftworkers.

LeMay, M., Layton, F., & Townsend, D. J. (1990). A model of human response to workload stress. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 28, 547-550.
The article examined the effect of workload in terms of time stress on performance. Ten experienced computer users were asked to correct mistakes in a WordPerfect document. The results suggested that increases in task demand (i.e., less time to complete the task) required an increase in resources, but that individuals can only produce an increase in resources for small demand increases and not for large increases in demand.

Leplat, J. (1978). Factors determining work-load. Ergonomics, 21, 143-149.
This article was an introduction to a series of articles written by researchers attending a symposium organized to discuss workload. The author provided a general overview of workload. Topics included some suggested analytical elements of workload, categories of workload, and factors that determine workload.

MacDonald, W. A. (2003). The Impact of Job Demands and Workload on Stress and Fatigue. Australian Psychologist, 38, 102-117.
The article provided a review of workload and job demands, and attempted to delineate the differences between these two hypothetical constructs. Occupational stress from workload and job demands was also reviewed. The author argued that the measurement of workload and job demands would benefit from the distinction between capacity-limiting and motivation-limiting factors.

MacDonald, W. A. (2003). Workload and workplace stress. In C. L. Peterson (Ed.), Work stress: Studies of the context, content and outcomes of stress: A book of readings. (pp. 113-138). Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing.
The author cited major changes in the workplace leading to an intensification of work with increased hours, increased workload, and increased stress. In light of these changes, the chapter attempted to determine the relationship between job demands, performance, perceived workload, and occupational stress. The author described factors associated with a safe and healthy system of work.

McCormick, J. (2003). Professional workers and stress. In C. L. Peterson (Ed.), Work stress: Studies of the context, content and outcomes of stress: A book of readings. (pp. 167-179). Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing.
This chapter reviews the literature on stress and burnout of professional workers (e.g., doctors, teachers). The author discussed similarities of professional workers that may lead to negative outcomes such as the client-professional relationship, the nature of professionalism, and common environmental elements. A theoretical model was proposed for teaching professionals in large education systems.

Meers, A., Maasen, A., & Verhaegen, P. (1978). Subjective health after six months and after four years of shift work. Ergonomics, 21, 857-859.
Subjective health scores for 104 new employees at a wire mill were recorded. A re-examination 6 months later revealed that their subjective health scores had dropped. A third follow-up 4 years later revealed that the subjective health scores for 64 workers still in the plant had further decreased and for 31 former employees who left had returned to the level recorded at the 6 month re-examination.

Meijman, T., Van der Meer, O., & Van Dormolen, M. (1993). The after-effects of night work on short-term memory performance. Ergonomics, 36, 37-42.
The study assessed the effects of night work on subsequent mental performance (i.e., memory search task). Twenty experienced shiftworkers and eight nonshiftworkers completed the study. The results indicated an incomplete recovery on the first fully undisturbed day-off after a night work shift.

Meijman, T. F., & Mulder, G. (1998). Psychological aspects of workload. In P. J. D. Drenth & H. Thierry (Eds.), A Handbook of Work and Organizational Psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 5-33). Hove, England: Psychology Press.
This handbook chapter reviewed the conceptualization of workload. The authors outlined a framework of workload based on changes in the nature and level of information load and on the biochemical processes associated with task performance. A model was proposed that has roots in exercise physiology and offers insights into work psychology and occupational medicine.

Menna-Barreto, L., Benedito-Silva, A. A., Moreno, C. R., & Fischer, F. M. (1993). Individual differences in night and continuously-rotating shiftwork: Seeking anticipatory rather than compensatory strategy. Ergonomics, 36, 135-140.
The objective of the study was to examine anticipatory response of sleep onset time preceding work to uncover strategies used by shiftworkers. The results indicated that night worker go to bed once a day, but shiftworkers prefer to allocate sleep onset to two different periods of the day. Well-adapted individuals, based on information obtained in an interview, chose more regular sleep onset times.

Monk, T. H. (1986). Advantages and disadvantages of rapidly rotating shift schedules: A circadian viewpoint. Human Factors, 28, 553-557.
In a secondary analysis of existing data, the study examined the benefits and drawbacks of rapid shift rotations of less than five days versus slowly rotating and fixed shift systems. The article focused on circadian issues. The author concluded that one must consider the entire situation to evaluate a shift system.

Monk, T. H. (1988). Coping with the stress of shift work. Work & Stress, 2, 169-172.
The author evaluated the American and European workforce engaged in night and shiftwork. Practical advice regarding coping strategies was offered. The advice was presented in terms of a theoretical framework of three interactive factors.

Monk, T. H. (2000). What can the chronobiologist do to help the shift worker? Journal of Biological Rhythms, 15, 86-94.
This article provided a review of how shiftworkers can benefit from the science of chronobiology. The article offered advice for employers and employees. Topics included artificial lighting, melatonin pills, naps, and new shift rotation designs.

Monk, T. H., & Carrier, J. (2003). Shift worker performance. Clinics in Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 3, 209-229.
In this review article, the authors adopted a worker-oriented strategy to ameliorate biological and social problems associated with shiftwork. The authors asserted that enhancing shiftwork coping will improve employee’s safety and well-being, which will in turn lead to increased job effectiveness and productivity, and that this strategy should be preferred over focusing directly on increasing effectiveness and productivity. The article included a number of interventions (e.g., education) to make the shiftwork environment less dangerous and more productive.

Monk, T. H., & Folkard, S. (1992). Making shift work tolerable. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.
This book summarized sources from a range of different countries on the topic of shiftwork. The authors attempted to make the results appropriate for a variety of applications. The book started by reviewing the human biology of the shiftworker and ends with recommended strategies for employers.

Monk, T. H., Folkard, S., & Wedderburn, A. I. (1996). Maintaining safety and high performance on shiftwork. Applied Ergonomics, 27, 17-23.
The authors discussed the safety and productivity issues of the shiftworker. The authors reviewed why there are biological and social problems associate with shiftwork, what the problems are, and approaches to manage the problems. The article also included a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of different shift rotation designs.

Nanda, R., & Browne, J. (1992). Introduction to employee scheduling. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
This book consolidated, integrated, and extended employee scheduling research published in technical journals such as Operations Research, Management Science, Industrial Engineering, and Decision Sciences. The authors designed the books so that the content would be accessible to a broad audience including practitioners. This book provided an operations perspective on employee scheduling, and addressed problems associated with efficient shift schedules for variable staffing requirements and related legal, social, and labor/management issues.

Ng-A-Tham, J. E., & Thierry, H. (1993). An experimental change of the speed of rotation of the morning and evening shift. Ergonomics, 36, 51-57.
The study investigated the change from a slowly rotating shift to a moderately rapid rotating shift with a slowly rotating nightshift. Eighty-five Dutch railway traffic controllers completed a questionnaire before and six months after the change and kept a diary. The study revealed a decrease in sleep complaints and weekly workload.

Oginska, H., Pokorski, J., & Oginski, A. (1993). Gender, ageing, and shiftwork intolerance. Ergonomics, 36, 161-168.
The study examined gender and age differences in coping with shiftwork-related health and social problems. The sample consisted of 83 crane-operators from a Polish steel plant. Women reported more problems than men until 40-50 years of age at which point men reported more problems. Women were more likely to complain about health problems and see a doctor, but less likely to quit.

Olian, J. O., & Rynes, S. L. (1984). Organizational Staffing. Industrial Relations, 23, 170-183.
The aim of the article was to review the effect of contextual factors (e.g., organizational size and structure) on staffing effectiveness. Seventeen propositions were advanced under the assumptions that different types of organizations require different types of employees, and different staffing practices attract different types of potential employees. The authors proposed a model in which external staffing decisions were more effective to the extent that they were logically consistent and consistent with the strategic direction of the organization.

Pierce, J. L., & Dunham, R. B. (1992). The 12-hour work day: A 48 hour, eight-day week. Academy of Management Journal, 35, 1086-1098.
This study investigated the reactions of police officers to a change from a forward rotating 8-hour shift to a 12-hour compressed shift design. The authors found improvements in schedule-related interference with personal activities, work schedule attitudes, general affect, stress, and fatigue. Although general work attitudes remained unchanged, organizational effectiveness improved.

Reinberg, A. (1978). Circadian rhythm amplitude and individual ability to adjust to shift work. Ergonomics, 21, 763-766.
The study examined the changes in indicators of circadian rhythms after a phase shift. Several indicators were correlated with the phase shift. The authors suggested that certain circadian rhythms could be used to measure individual ability to adjust to shift work.

Smith, C. S., Reilly, C., & Midkiff, K. (1989). Evaluation of three circadian rhythm questionnaires with suggestions for an improved measure of morningness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 728-738.
The objective of the study was to develop a single measure of morningness (i.e., a preference for morning activities rather than evening activities). The sample included 501 undergraduate students. The best 13 items were selected from three widely used morningness scales. The authors suggested that morningness influences adjustment to shiftwork, and has been used for job selection.

Smith, C. S., Robie, C., Folkard, S., Barton, J., Macdonald, I., Smith, L., et al. (1999). A process model of shiftwork and health. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4, 207-218.
Although researchers generally agree that certain features of shift systems (e.g., forward rotation), worker characteristics (e.g., age), and different jobs (e.g., workload differences) can alleviate or exacerbate the influence of shifts schedules on waking and sleeping hours, there is a clear divergence in views regarding how shiftwork illnesses develops. The authors reviewed this divergence in views that appears in the variety of theoretical models used to explain adaptation to shiftwork, and proposed a new model of shiftwork adaptation. The samples consisted of nurses and midwives working in large hospitals in England and Wales and a British group of mostly male industrial and service workers from a range of occupations (e.g., air traffic controller, post office employee).

Sonnenfeld, J. A. (1989). Career system profiles and strategic staffing. In M. B. Arthur & D. T. Hall (Eds.), Handbook of career theory. (pp. 202-224). New York: Cambridge University Press.
The author suggested a conceptualization of employees’ careers as a system in which employees progress during their tenure with an organization. The author discussed the lack of knowledge about how an organization equips employees for changing assignments. Specifically, the chapter reviewed how individuals enter and exit an organization (e.g., quit, fired) and how employees move within an organization (e.g., promotions, new job assignments).

Sonnenfeld, J. A., & Peiperl, M. A. (1988). Staffing policy as a strategic response: A typology of career systems. Academy of Management Review, 13, 588-600.
The authors proposed a four-cell typology in a career systems approach to explain how organizations adopt a staffing strategy. The typology describes and predicts the decisions an organization makes in managing their staffing strategy and the composition of their work force. The chapter came from the field of management and discussed research conducted on large companies in the United States.

Tattersall, A. J. (2000). Workload and task allocation. In N. Chmiel (Ed.), Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology. Oxford, England: Blackwell.
This chapter reviewed the nature of workload in terms of the interrelationship among workload, performance, and employee well-being. Measurement techniques used to assess workload were evaluated. Finally, the authors discussed the relationship between work and task design, workload, and occupational stress.

Tepas, D. I. (1993). Educational programmes for shiftworkers, their families, and prospective shiftworkers. Ergonomics, 36, 199-209.
This article assessed the validity of educational programs for shiftworkers, and found in some cases that the information in some of the education programs may have misled those in attendance. The author offered seven principles to guide the design of an educational program. The author stressed the importance of designing an educational program, which includes an evaluation of its success or failure, rather than focusing on specific behavioral techniques.

Tepas, D. I. (2003). Workware decision support systems: A comprehensive methodological approach to work-scheduling problems. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 4, 319-326.
The author outlined the current knowledge available on work scheduling to counter work-scheduling problems (e.g., health and safety risks). A new model is proposed as a new paradigm for work—scheduling ergonomics. The model aids in decision making for developing schedules, for example, for an around-the-clock continuous operation.

Tepas, D. I., Paley, M. J., & Popkin, S. M. (1997). Work schedules and sustained performance. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley.
The handbook chapter took the perspective that alternative work schedules should be viewed as part of the contemporary workplace, and work arrangements should account for human limitations of working at night for long periods of time. The authors introduced a vast amount of work schedule topics from circadian variations to weekend work. The authors attempted to summarize the research findings from each topic.

Terpstra, D. E., & Rozell, E. J. (1993). The relationship of staffing practices to organizational level measures of performance. Personnel Psychology, 46, 27-48.
The study investigated effective staffing practices and their relationship with organizational outcomes (e.g., annual profit, profit growth). The sample included companies with 200 or more employees in the United States. The relationship between staffing practices and organizational outcomes varied by the companies’ industry type (e.g., transportation/communication, service).

Thierry, H., & Jansen, B. (1998). Work time and behaviour at work. In P. J. D. Drenth & H. Thierry (Eds.), A Handbook of Work and Organizational Psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 89-119). Hove, England: Psychology Press.
This handbook chapter discussed the psychological meaning and consequences of different work time arrangements on employees’ work behaviors. The fourth section focused on irregular and shift work, and covers the effects of irregular hours on employees. In addition, this section reviewed research conducted in the area and interventions that have been proposed to help ameliorate problems.

Thierry, H., & Meijman, T. (1994). Time and behavior at work. In H. C. Triandis & M. D. Dunnette (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, Vol. 4 (2nd ed., pp. 341-413). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
This handbook chapter provided an overview of the major themes relevant to research on working time arrangements and related practices including coverage of shiftwork. The authors focused on individual employees and the effect of different working time arrangements. The dimensions of shiftwork were discussed.

TMCOps: The transportation management operations technician (TMOT) position description creation tool. (2005). Retrieved February 16, 2005, from http://tmcops.gtri.gatech.edu/tool_home.php
The statement of work specifically directs the project team to build off of the TMC Operator Requirements, Position Descriptions Phase 2 - Interactive Software initiative. The purpose of this initiative is to develop an interactive tool from the work completed in the TMC Operator Requirements and Position Descriptions, Phase 1 initiative for TMC managers, supervisors, and human resources personnel to easily obtain the basic knowledge, skill, and ability (KSA) requirements for a TMC operator position. The website provides a revision of the Guidelines for TMC Transportation Management Operations Technician Staff Development and support documents (e.g., tutorials) that expand upon the discussion of the functions of TMCs, KSA requirements for the TMC operator position, and tasks performed by TMC operators.

Totterdell, P., Spelten, E., Smith, L., Barton, J., & Folkard, S. (1995). Recovery from work shifts: How long does it take? Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 43-57.
The purpose of the article was to fill the gap in research on recovery form work. Sixty-one nurses on shiftwork schedules completed self-ratings of cognitive-performance tasks and kept a sleep diary. Nurses recovering from nightshifts scored lower on the study measures (e.g., alertness, reaction time) than nurses working the dayshift during recovery days.

van Veldhoven, M., de Jonge, J., Broersen, S., Kompier, M., & Meijman, T. (2002). Specific relationships between psychosocial job conditions and job-related stress: A three-level analytic approach. Work & Stress, 16, 207-228.
The objective of the study was to determine sources of job-related stress, and to specify the relationships between psychosocial job demands and job-related stress. The effects were examined at the individual level, the departmental level, and the organizational level. A total of 2,565 workers in 36 organizations in the Netherlands completed the questionnaire. The results indicated that psychological job demands were more strongly related to strain, and job content variables (e.g., job variety) were more strongly related to well-being.

Wedderburn, A. A. (1992). How fast should the night shift rotate? A rejoinder. Ergonomics, 35, 1447-1451.
This article criticized the views of an article written by Wilkinson titled “How fast should the nightshift rotate?” The author suggested that laboratory studies do not replicate in the field, and noted several problems with a permanent nightshift including that most night-workers never completely adapt and that they tend to try and avoid management. The author also noted that the use of a permanent nightshift does not mach the three rotating shift design in Britain.

Wicker, A. W., & August, R. A. (1995). How far should we generalize? The case of a workload model. Psychological Science, 6, 39-44.
The authors briefly reviewed staffing theory and proposed a conceptual model. The model links organizational size, workload, worker’s experience, and work outcomes. The model fit data obtained from 1,311 waged and salaried workers drawn from the 1977 Quality of Employment Survey. Workers were sampled from a variety of areas such as professional and technical workers, managers and administrators, and service workers.

Wilkinson, R. T. (1992). How fast should the night shift rotate? Ergonomics, 35, 1425-1446.
This review article challenged the claim that the optimal organization of a 24-hour staffing cycle is a rapid rotation from morning to afternoon to night in two- to three-day intervals. The author argued for a fixed nightshift, and possibly a rapidly rotating morning and afternoon shift design. However, the author cautioned that more research comparing the two systems is needed, and that the appropriate shift system will depend on the environment.

Wilkinson, R. T. (1992). Reply to Folkard. Ergonomics, 35, 1465-1466.
1.The author briefly replied to criticisms from other researchers on his article titled “How fast should the nightshift rotate?” Views from the previous article were reasserted. The author discussed new research that was published after the original article was completed.
Please share your comments on any of these references and to suggest other references you've found that might be useful to others.


Bruce said...

I'm surprised that the latest research listed was from 2005. Most of the articles are from the 1990s or 1980s. Isn't there anything more recent?

Ed Coburn said...

You are right Bruce. This was a list we had already that we thought we'd better put up on the site. We're working on a supplement that will include 2006 and 2007 references.